Education has long been considered a core social determinant of health with Sustainable Development Goal 4 focusing on promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all, with a specific emphasis on better education for girls.
Children born extremely prematurely, before 32 weeks of pregnancy, continue to show cognitive limitations into their teenage years.
This retrospective cohort study used routinely collected electronic data from 2015-16 to ascertain the proportion of births recorded as having occurred in water, the characteristics of women who experienced water birth and the odds of key maternal and neonatal complications associated with giving birth in water. 46,088 women in 35 English NHS Trusts were included in the study.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a preventable permanent disability. A Senate committee in Australia has found that FASD is still not well understood or recognised and has highlighted a critical need for prevalence data and a robust study of its economic and social impact.
In 2018, one in three Australian women had a caesarean section (CS). This study, from Queensland, of nearly 100,000 women who were having their first baby or a baby after a previous vaginal birth, used routinely collected hospital data to analyse the main reasons for a primary CS. The top two were: ‘abnormal fetal heart rate’ (23%) and ’primary inadequate contractions’ (23%).